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1.5 degrees
Activity-based data
Base year Beyond Value Chain Mitigation B Corp Certification
Carbon Accounting Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e) Carbon Footprint Carbon Neutral Carbon Offset Circular Economy Climate Active Certification Climate Change Climate Positive Conference of the Parties (COP)
Decarbonise Deforestation Direct Emissions Downstream Emissions
Embodied Carbon Emission Factor E-Waste
Fossil Fuels Fugitive Emissions
Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) Global Warming Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Gasses (GHG) Greenwashing
ISO14001 International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Net Zero Net Zero Standard
Paris Agreement Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)
Refrigerants Renewable Energy
Scopes Scope 1 Scope 2 Scope 3 Science Based Targets Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTI) Solar Power Spend-based data Stationary fuel Supply Chain Emissions Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s) Sustainability
Tipping Point
Upstream Emissions
Waste Audit Wind Power

1.5 degrees

The 1.5 °C target is the goal of the Paris Agreement. It aims to limit the earth warming to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels. Any greater than this would lead to significantly more destructive climate changes. < Back to top

Activity-based data

Activity-based carbon accounting is when emission data is calculated using actual units of activity or usage. For example, a MJ of natural gas, a kWh of electricity or a litre of fuel. In carbon accounting, activity data generally provides more accurate emissions than spend-based data. < Back to top

Base year

An organisations base year defines a benchmark for carbon accounting and reduction targets. The first year an organisation uses carbon accounting to understand their carbon footprint is usually their base year. They can then use to compare to future years to see how their carbon emissions have changed over time. < Back to top

Beyond Value Chain Mitigation

Beyond value chain mitigation refers to mitigation actions or investments that fall outside of an organisations value chain (supply chain). It includes activities that avoid or reduce greenhouse gas emissions and those that remove and store greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. < Back to top

B Corp Certification

B Corp certification is a private certification of for-profit businesses of their social and environmental performance. Certification verifies that the business is meeting high standards in these areas, and is accountable and transparent in their operations. < Back to top

Carbon Accounting

Carbon accounting, also called Greenhouse Gas accounting, is the estimation and measurement of the quantity of Greenhouse Gasses an organisation emits. Emissions of different gasses are converted into Carbon Dioxide Equivalents (CO2e), to calculate a total emissions quantity in a consistent unit. < Back to top

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a molecule in the air consisting of carbon and oxygen. CO2, it is one of the most important greenhouse gases and contributes significantly to climate change. In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide absorbs part of the heat radiation from the sun that was emitted from the earth to space, and radiates it back to the earth. Once released into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide does not decompose on its own. < Back to top

Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e)

Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e), is a metric measure representing all greenhouse gases by converting them to the equivalent amount of CO2. There are 6 greenhouse gases which all contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. < Back to top

Carbon Footprint

The total amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organisation in a given timeframe. < Back to top

Carbon Neutral

Carbon neutral is an organisation balances the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere from its activities by an equivalent amount being removed. This is generally achieved through the purchase of carbon offsets. Achieving carbon neutrality is different from Net Zero which requires being aligned to a 1.5°C of warming and focuses on reducing emissions, and permanently removing any unavoidable trailing emissions. < Back to top

Carbon Offset

Carbon offsetting is the process of removing carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions from the atmosphere. Offset units are purchased and used to compensate for emissions produced by an organisation. Offset units are generated by projects that reduce, remove or capture emissions from the atmosphere such as reforestation, renewable energy or energy efficiency. < Back to top

Circular Economy

A circular economy keeps materials, products, and services in circulation for as long possible. It involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products. CE aims to tackle global challenges as climate change, biodiversity loss, waste and pollution. < Back to top

Climate Active Certification

Climate Active is a partnership between the Australian Government and Australian businesses to drive voluntary climate action. A Climate Active Certification is awarded to businesses and organisations that have credibly reached a state of carbon neutrality. < Back to top

Climate Change

Climate change refers to long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts can be natural but since the 1800s, human activities have been the main cause, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels (like coal, oil and gas), which produces heat trapping gases. < Back to top

Climate Positive

Climate positive is when an organisation goes beyond achieving net zero carbon emissions and creates an environmental benefit by removing additional carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. < Back to top

Conference of the Parties (COP)

The Conference of the Parties include countries that signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – a treaty that came into force in 1994. A key task for the COP is to review the national communications and emission inventories submitted by Parties. The COP meets every year unless otherwise agreed between the parties. < Back to top


To ‘Decarbonise’ is the process where an organization reduces its carbon footprint by reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. < Back to top


Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. < Back to top

Direct Emissions

Direct emissions are produced from sources owned, produced, and controlled by an organisation. They are referred to as Scope 1 emissions. Examples include manufacturing /processing of materials, company vehicles, and refrigerants. < Back to top

Downstream Emissions

Downstream emissions are indirect emissions in an organisations supply chain or scope 3. They include all emissions generated by activities related to the consumption of a product or service. < Back to top

Embodied Carbon

Embodied carbon is the total greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production of a product. It is a common term used in the construction industry referring to the amount of emissions generated per unit of construction materials and buildings. < Back to top

Emission Factor

An Emission Factor is a coefficient that describes the rate at which a given activity releases greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. < Back to top


E-waste is any item with a plug, battery or power cord that’s no longer working or wanted. It covers a whole range of items from phones and refrigerators to fluorescent light tubes. < Back to top

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-containing materials formed naturally in the earth’s crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that are extracted and burned as a fuel. The main fossil fuels are coal, crude oil and natural gas. < Back to top

Fugitive Emissions

Fugitive emissions are unintentional leaks or releases of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere from contained environments. These typically occur from industrial processes or equipment such as appliances, transfer pipelines, or storage tanks. Gasses can escape these pressurised environments due to damaged equipment, during servicing, or as part of pollutant gas production and capture. A common source of fugitive emissions include refrigerants, which are using in refrigeration, cooling and air conditioning systems. < Back to top

Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) was established in 1990 and is a globally recognised standard for measuring and managing greenhouse gas emissions. < Back to top

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s surface as a result of the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. < Back to top

Greenhouse Effect

The greenhouse effect happens when gases in Earth’s atmosphere trap the Sun’s heat. This process makes Earth much warmer than it would be without an atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is one of the things that makes Earth a comfortable place to live. Human activities are however changing Earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Burning fossil fuels puts more carbon dioxide into our atmosphere and therefore causing the earth to warm up more than we need it to. < Back to top

Greenhouse Gasses (GHG)

Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are gases in the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect and warm the planet. < Back to top


Greenwashing is the term used when an organisation provides misleading or false information about the sustainability of their business activities. Given the difficulty in accurately capturing all an organisations supply chain emissions, greenwashing can occur unintendedly as well as intentionally. < Back to top


Hydropower is a renewable energy using the movement of water to create electricity. < Back to top


ISO 14001 is an international standard that specifies requirements for an effective environmental management system (EMS). It provides a framework that an organization can follow and helps organizations improve their environmental performance through more efficient use of resources and reduction of waste. < Back to top

International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for accessing the science related to climate change and advancing knowledge on human-induced climate change. < Back to top

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

A Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the process for evaluating the environmental impact of a product or service for the entire period of its life – from cradle (raw material extraction) to grave (final disposal). < Back to top

Net Zero

Net Zero refers to a state where an organisation has reduced its greenhouse gas emissions as far as possible (by 90-95%), and have compensated any unavoidable trailing emissions through investment in projects that generate permanent removal and storage of carbon from the atmosphere. < Back to top

Net Zero Standard

The Net Zero Standard was developed by the Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi). The standard provides guidance, criteria, and recommendations for companies to set science-based net-zero targets consistent with limiting global temperature rise to 1.5°C. < Back to top

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.The goal of the Paris Agreement is to limit global warming to well below 2 (preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius) compared to pre-industrial levels. < Back to top

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

A Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is a long-term contract where an organisation agrees to purchase electricity directly from a renewable energy generator. Power Purchase Agreements remove significant barriers to the development of renewable energy facilities. < Back to top


Refrigerants are compounds that are used in refrigeration, cooling, or air conditioning systems. Refrigerants are some of the most potent greenhouse gasses, with many of these compounds having global warming potentials more than 1,000 times that of carbon dioxide. Emissions from refrigerants are considered fugitive emissions, and typically occur due to damaged equipment, during servicing or re-filling of refrigerant compounds, or due to the degradation of storage tanks at the products end-of-life. < Back to top

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is created from sources that can be replenished in a short period of time. The renewable sources used most often include wind, solar, biomass (such as wood and biogas), hydropower (the movement of water) and geothermal (heat from within the earth). < Back to top


Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are classified into three scopes – scope 1, scope 2 and scope 3. The scope is determined by where the emissions originate. To calculate an organisations full carbon footprint, they must take into account all 3 scopes. < Back to top

Scope 1

Scope 1 emissions are direct emissions generated from sources owned, produced, and controlled by an organisation including manufacturing /processing of materials, company vehicles, and refrigerants. < Back to top

Scope 2

Scope 2 emissions are indirect emissions generated by the purchase of electricity, heating, steam or cooling by the organisation. < Back to top

Scope 3

Scope 3 emissions are indirect emissions generated in an organisations supply chain including business travel, freight, waste, employee commuting and purchased goods & services. < Back to top

Science Based Targets

An organisations targets are considered ‘science-based’ if they are in line with what the latest climate science deems necessary to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement – limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. < Back to top

Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTI)

The SBTi is a partnership between the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP), the United Nations Global Compact, World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The SBTi drives ambitious climate action in the private sector by enabling organizations to set science-based emissions reduction targets. < Back to top

Solar Power

Solar Power is a renewable energy created by converting the energy from the sun into electricity. < Back to top

Spend-based data

Spend-based carbon accounting is when emission data is calculated using financial information as opposed to activity data. In carbon accounting, activity data generally provides more accurate emissions than spend-based data. < Back to top

Stationary fuel

Stationary fuel refers to liquid or gaseous fuels used in stationary machinery or equipment. This includes fuels used for energy generation, the operation of small machinery such as chainsaws or lawn mowers, or the operation of large unregistered machinery including industrial processing, and agricultural machinery. < Back to top

Supply Chain Emissions

Supply chain emissions (also known as value chain emissions or scope 3) are indirect emissions generated as a result of activities occurring upstream and downstream of an organisation. It includes business travel, waste disposal and purchased goods and services. Supply chain emissions account for the most significant part of many organisations carbon footprint. < Back to top

Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s)

There are 17 Sustainable Development Goals, which were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly. The goals are the blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. They address the global challenges we face, including poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental degradation, peace and justice. < Back to top


Sustainability means doing business without negatively impacting the environment, community, or society as a whole. Operating sustainably has many other benefits as well including gaining competitor advantage, attracting an retaining customer and cost reduction through efficiencies. << Back to top

Tipping Point

Tipping points are often referred to in relation to climate change. A tipping point is a critical threshold that, when crossed, leads to large and often irreversible changes in the climate system. If tipping points are crossed, they are likely to have severe impacts on human society. < Back to top

Upstream Emissions

Upstream emissions are indirect emissions in an organisations supply chain or scope 3. They include all emissions generated by activities to produce a product or service including materials transported, business travel, employee commuting and landfill waste. < Back to top

Waste Audit

A waste audit is the review of an organisations methods of handling waste. The objective is to understand the waste produced, identify what improvements can be made and increase levels of recycling and reuse. < Back to top

Wind Power

Wind Power is a renewable energy created by harnessing the power of wind to create electricity. < Back to top[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]